IPM Strategy for Using Fly Parasites in Poultry Manure
4 WEEK FLY PARASITE INOCULATION PLAN
Use this plan after cleanout to reestablish a fly parasite population. Release one host pupa per bird per week every week for 4 weeks starting in the first week of manure accumulation. The fly parasites purchased in week one will lay eggs most heavily during the following week. These eggs will become adults and start laying eggs in week 4. In turn, the adults that develop from these eggs will start laying eggs in week 7. It is very important to make several weekly releases in order to establish overlapping generations of egg-laying adults. For example, for 100,000 birds, release 100,000 host pupae per week for 4 weeks.
8 WEEK FLY PARASITE SATURATION PLAN
Use this plan after cleanout to establish a fly parasite population that can exert immediate pressure on the fly population. Release 1 host pupa per bird in the first week of manure accumulation, then 2 host pupae per bird weekly for 4 weeks, then 1 host pupa per bird weekly for 3 weeks. The advantage of this program is that the populations established by the larger releases will multiply more than twice as fast as the inoculation plan.
For example, for 100,000 birds, the releases would be as follows:
Week 1: 100M
Week 2: 200M
Week 3: 200M
Week 4: 200M
Week 5: 200M
Week 6: 100M
Week 7: 100M
Week 8: 100M
MULTIPLE RELEASES ARE ESSENTIAL FOR CONTINUOUS FLY PARASITE ACTIVITY DURING ESTABLISHMENT
Fly Parasites can lay eggs for several weeks, but their peak and most effective egg-laying period lasts approximately 7 days. Their eggs are the beginning of the next generation, which takes approximately three weeks to mature and lay its own eggs. Repeat weekly releases a minimum of 4 times to assure constant fly parasite reproduction during the fly parasite startup.
USE FLY PARASITES AS PART OF A COMPLETE INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PROGRAM
Monitor and Keep Records Keep some kind of records of relative fly numbers. These can be recorded as number of fly specks on 3” X 5” cards, or the numbers of flies caught on sticky tapes in a given period of time. Records of past fly population will help in making decisions. One of the easiest ways to interpret the data is in graph form.
Cultural Control Control moisture in the manure by ensuring proper drainage, stopping leaks, and keeping fans in good operating condition. Leave an absorbent base of old manure after cleanout to help control moisture.
Conserve your beneficial parasites and predators during cleanout by leaving some of the old surface manure in the barn. Some farms clean out in phases so that there is always old manure in the barn to serve as a source of beneficials. Another way is to leave some old manure along the edges when cleaning out.
Biological Control Conserve natural population as mentioned above. Use either the 4-week Inoculation Plan or the 8-week Saturation Plan to reestablish the fly parasite population.
Reestablish Hister Beetle Population using trapping methods or by purchasing Adult Hister Beetles. Ask your supplier for information regarding Hister Beetle products.
Chemical Control Use chemical pesticides only when necessary.
Kill adult flies with fly baits, fly traps, and/or residual sprays on fly resting spots (walls, lines in ceilings). Avoid contaminating the manure with insecticides so that you don’t harm the beneficials. If a heavier adult knockdown is required, a space spray with synergised pyrethrum will kill the adult flies and do the least harm to the fly parasites.